Database & Storage
A database refers to the organized assemblage of structured data and information meant to be stored electronically in the computer. It is concerned with the well-defined data formats which are kept efficiently for inserting, updating, and retrieving the data on request. So, databases are stored within the file formats, consisting of the records in electromagnetic formats. But these are stored in storage devices in physical form, which is available in three forms: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Depending on the type and data sensitivity, these storage systems offer different functionalities and benefits.
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Identifying the concerns of traditional file-based systems that make DBMS an excellent alternative
Points that make DBMS a superb choice are:
Access, where the absence of indexing makes it super slow
Inconsistency and redundancy make altering data a great hassle and expensive affair as they consist of duplicate data and lack consistency
Lack of concurrency control, resulting in losing updates, inconsistent retrievals, and uncommitted data
Data isolation and integrity check
Poor security and atomicity of transactions
Examples of open source and commercial Relational DBMSs
- Open source RDBMS: SQLite, MySQL, PostgreSQL, etc.
- Commercial RDBMSs: Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, and Teradata
What is meant by a database model?
A database model refers to the logical structure of a database that describes in detail the constraints and relationships required for accessing and storing data. Some standard models for reference are:
Entity-Relationship (ER) model
Object-Oriented (OO) model
Define ER modeling
Entity-Relationship refers to modeling that can imitate the relationships between entities in the real world. Here, the entities involve an event, people, locations, and relationships that highlight the connection and interactions among these. Each of these entities will have its attributes and is essential for defining the role and responsibilities within an organization.
Let’s explain with this image.
How do you define a database trigger?
A trigger refers to a stored procedure that runs automatically either before or after the occurrence of an event. The events include DCL, DDL, DML, or database operations like LOGON/LOGOFF. The general trigger syntax looks like this:
Some applications of the triggers are:
To check the transaction validity
To enforce the referential integrity
To generate some derived columns automatically, etc.
These triggers are invoked during the events. On the other hand, in the case of a stored procedure, it refers to an independent query.
What is meant by database partitioning?
Partitioning refers to the process of dividing large tables into multiple smaller controllable pieces. Some benefits include faster data load, faster queries, and quick deletion of old data. Horizontal and vertical are the two ways to partition the table, where vertical refers to putting the different columns into different partitions. In contrast, horizontal partitioning puts the subset of rows in separate sections based on a partition key. However, these benefits are constrained by the partition key and granularity choice.
Define database sharding.
Sharding refers to the horizontal partitioning architecture. Each shard will have the same column and schema but different rows. Each of these is independent of the other. The main benefit here is scalability. With the automatic sharding architecture, one can simply add multiple machines to the stack when needed and diminish the load on the existing devices. As a result, it allows more traffic as well as faster processing. It is effective for the application during its growth stage.
How do you do database and storage assessments for your business?
Few points to help you with database and storage assessment for your business:
Current computing environment
Applications in use
Everyday use of cloud computing services
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